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Breastfeeding Resources

Dialogue on Diarrhoea Links on Breastfeeding on-site

Health Basics insert: Breastfeeding

Breastfeeding: helping to reduce the severity of diarrhoea
Breastfeeding in emergencies
Breastfeeding prevents infection
Breastfeeding promotion: the right start
Breastfeeding twins
Congratulations to the mothers
Exclusive breastfeeding (letter)
Exclusive breastfeeding
Extra drinks are unnecessary
Help for breastfeeding mothers
How to feed a baby who cannot breastfeed
How to help a woman to re-establish lactation
'I do not have enough milk.'
Passport to life: breastmilk banking in India
Perspectives on human milk banking
Portugal: rediscovering breastfeeding
Promoting breastfeeding in urban communities
Promoting the benefits of breastfeeding
Training health care workers to counsel breastfeeding mothers
WHO study
Women, work and breastfeeding
Zealous promotion of breastfeeding is not the answer (letter)

 

 

Breastfeeding Gateway

NHS Choices - Parenting Information

The Department of Health's latest online publications include pregnancy, your child's health from birth to five years, and information on feeding.


 

Rapid advice: revised WHO principles and recommendations on infant feeding in the context of HIV – November 2009
On 30 November 2009, the eve of World AIDS Day, the WHO released new recommendations on treatment, prevention and infant feeding in the context of HIV, based on the latest scientific evidence.

The new recommendations call for earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for adults and adolescents, the delivery of more patient-friendly antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), and prolonged use of ARVs to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. And, for the first time, WHO recommends that HIV-positive mothers or their infants take ARVs while breastfeeding to prevent transmission.  click here for the WHO announcement.
“Act Now!” Campaign in ZambiaThis resource is endorsed by the Inter-Agency Task Team on Children and HIV and AIDS.

Authoring organization(s): LINKAGES— Zambia

Published: 2004–2005

Summary: These brochures, created as part of the LINKAGES “Act Now” Campaign in Zambia, offer standardized messages on infant feeding and HIV for a variety of audiences, including mothers, youth, and health workers. Topics include prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, HIV testing and counseling, and optimal infant and young child feeding behaviors.

Booklet:

Brochure:

Poster:

Topic(s): Behavior change communication, breastfeeding, infant feeding and HIV, maternal nutrition

Type(s): Booklet, brochure, poster

Region: Sub-Saharan Africa

Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative: Revised and Updated Expansion and Integration

Authoring organization(s): World Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund

Published: 2006

Summary: Part I of this document gives background information on the prevalence and causes of anemia by region, and discusses program approaches and good practices through several case studies of successful programs and other examples. Part II provides tools and resources for anemia control programs. This links to the preliminary version for country implementation.

Topic(s): Breastfeeding

Type(s): Booklet

Region: Global

Challenging Assumptions: Breastfeeding and HIV/AIDS

Authoring organization(s): Program for Appropriate Technology in Health

Published: 2008

Summary: This policy brief discusses the benefits of breastfeeding in light of the risk of perinatal HIV transmission.

Topic(s): Breastfeeding, infant feeding and HIV

Type(s): Newsletter

Region: Global

Facts for Feeding

Authoring organization(s): LINKAGES

Published: 2001–2006

Summary: These seven short leaflets provide general information on topics relevant to infant and young child nutrition for parents and health workers.

English:

French:

Spanish:

Portuguese:

Topic(s): Breastfeeding, general nutrition, non-English

Type(s): Leaflet

Region: Global

Guiding Principles for the Complementary Feeding of the Breastfed Child

Author(s): Dewey K

Authoring organization(s): Pan American Health Organization, World Health Organization

Published: 2002

Summary: This document distills information from discussions at several technical meetings and technical documents on complementary feeding. It covers the duration of breastfeeding and the age complementary foods should be introduced; continued breastfeeding during the 6–24 month period; responsive feeding; feeding during and after illness; the safe preparation and storage of complementary foods; the use of micronutrient supplements; and the amounts, types, frequency, and consistency of complementary foods.

Topic(s): Breastfeeding, complementary feeding, general nutrition

Type(s): Technical report

Region: Global

Guiding Principles for Feeding Infants and Young Children During Emergencies

Authoring organization(s): World Health Organization

Published: 2004

Summary: The guiding principles have been prepared to help prevent increased morbidity and mortality among infants and young children affected by an emergency. They serve as a basis for action and are intended to clarify that optimal practices for feeding infants and young children during emergencies are essentially the same as those that apply in other, more stable conditions. The document seeks to inform decision makers about key interventions and sustaining optimal infant and young child feeding during emergencies.

Topic(s): Breastfeeding, complementary feeding, general nutrition

Type(s): Technical report

Region: Global

HIV and Infant Feeding Technical Consultation: Consensus Statement

Authoring organization(s): Inter-Agency Task Team on Prevention of HIV Infections in Pregnant Women, Mothers, and Their Infants, World Health Organization

Published: 2006

Summary: This consensus statement is the product of the World Health Organization HIV and Infant Feeding Technical Consultation held on behalf of the Inter-Agency Task Team on Prevention of HIV Infections in Pregnant Women, Mothers, and Their Infants in Geneva, Switzerland, October 25–27, 2006. It outlines new evidence and research on HIV transmission through breastfeeding, new evidence on morbidity and mortality, improving young child infant feeding practices, new program data, and recommendations. Also included below are the reference documents that informed the consensus statement.

English:

French:

Reference documents:

Topic(s): Breastfeeding, infant feeding and HIV, non-English

Type(s): Policy document

Region: Global

Inclusion of Fathers in an Intervention to Promote Breastfeeding: Impact on Breastfeeding Practices

Author(s): Susin LR, Giugliani ER

Published: 2008

Summary: This article, published in the Journal of Human Lactation, revealed results of a controlled clinical trial in Brazil on the impact of a hospital-based breastfeeding education program for fathers.  

Topic(s): Breastfeeding

Type(s): Journal article

Region: Latin America

Infant and Young Child Feeding Counselling: An Integrated CourseThis resource is endorsed by the Inter-Agency Task Team on Children and HIV and AIDS.

Author(s): Saadeh R, Bland R, Casanovas C, Vallenas C, et al.

Authoring organization(s): World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund

Published: 2006

Summary: This course on infant feeding practices covers breastfeeding, HIV and infant feeding, and complementary feeding. It is an integrated version of three existing World Health Organization courses, designed for all health professionals, including lay workers, and for people with limited time for training.

Topic(s): Behavior change communication, breastfeeding, infant feeding and HIV, monitoring and evaluation

Type(s): Training guide, PowerPoint

Region: Global

Infant and Young Child Feeding Update

Author(s): Mukuria A, Kothari MT, Abderrahim N

Authoring organization(s): Macro International for the US Agency for International Development

Published: 2006

Summary: This update provides data on key indicators related to optimal feeding practices for children under five. The update includes a new summary of infant and young child feeding indicators for children 6 to 23 months and reports on Demographic and Health Survey data collected between 1998 and 2004 from 43 countries in five regions around the world: sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa/West Asia/Europe, Central Asia, South/Southeast Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean.

Topic(s): Breastfeeding, general nutrition, monitoring and evaluation

Type(s): Technical report

Region: Global

Infant Feeding Counseling MaterialsThis resource is endorsed by the Inter-Agency Task Team on Children and HIV and AIDS.

Authoring organization(s): Program for Appropriate Technology in Health

Published: 2006, 2008

Summary: These materials include clinical algorithms geared for health workers (not lay counselors) to use to counsel mothers and determine the most appropriate time to stop breastfeeding; an adaptation and finalization of the World Health Organization (WHO) Infant and Young Child Feeding Counseling: An Integrated Course, including new chapters on complementary feeding and country-specific recommendations; adaptations and local drawings/graphics inspired by the WHO counseling cards; and take-home brochures for mothers on exclusive breastfeeding, expressing breastmilk, and replacement feeding. The set also introduces a new follow-up form to be used at monthly postpartum visits for all infants of HIV-positive mothers.

English:

French:

Topic(s): Behavior change communication, breastfeeding, infant feeding and HIV, monitoring and evaluation, non-English

Type(s): Brochure, job aid, technical report, training guide

Region: Global

International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes

Authoring organization(s): World Health Organization

Published: 1981

Summary: This is the original International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes adopted by the World Health Organization in 1981.

Topic(s): Breastfeeding

Type(s): Policy document

Region: Global

Kenya Infant Feeding Assessment: Eastern and Western Provinces

Author(s): Israel-Ballard K, Waithaka M, Greiner T

Authoring organization(s): IYCN, PATH

Published: 2009

Summary: This study was conducted in the Eastern and Western Provinces in Kenya in 2008 to assess the experiences of HIV-infected mothers’ and their infants’ during the time they were stopping breastfeeding.

Topic(s): Breastfeeding, infant feeding and HIV

Type(s): Technical report

Region: Global

The Lancet Series on Child Survival

Author(s): Various

Authoring organization(s): The Lancet

Published: 2003

Summary: This document includes an editorial, two commentaries, and five articles focused on child survival: the prevalence of the problem, where the problem exists and what causes the problem, how we can prevent child deaths through cost-effective interventions, how to address equity gaps, and how to set priorities for programs.

Topic(s): Breastfeeding, general nutrition

Type(s): Journal article

Region: Global

The Lancet Series on Maternal and Child Undernutrition

Author(s): Various

Authoring organization(s): The Lancet

Published: 2008

Summary: This document includes an executive summary and five articles aimed to increase awareness around maternal and child undernutrition and serve as a catalyst for national-level governments, nongovernmental organizations, and the international nutrition community to spur action and stimulate national interest, leadership, and commitment.

Topic(s): Breastfeeding, general nutrition

Type(s): Journal article

Region: Global

Learning from Large-Scale Community-Based Programmes to Improve Breastfeeding Practices

Authoring organization(s): World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), Academy for Educational Development, Africa’s Health in 2010

Published: 2008

Summary: Community-based breastfeeding promotion and support is one of the key components of a comprehensive program to improve breastfeeding practices, as outlined in the WHO/UNICEF Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. This report shares experiences and lessons from community-based approaches so that others can use the information to strengthen existing programs and design new ones. The paper will be of particular value to individuals who are interested in studying and applying different models and the results and lessons emerging from them and assessing their applicability in a new setting.

Topic(s): Breastfeeding

Type(s): Technical report

Region: Global

Kenya Infant Feeding Brochures

Authoring organization(s): US Agency for International Development, PATH, Infant and Young Child Nutrition Project

Published: 2009

Summary: These two brochures (originally developed by the Government of Kenya, UNICEF, and PATH) are being disseminated to mothers and families through IYCN and APHIA II Western facility and community-based activities. One brochure focuses on infant feeding during the first six months of life and the other focuses on infant feeding after 6 months.

Swahili:

Topic(s): Complementary feeding, breastfeeding, non-English

Type(s): Brochures

Region: Sub-Saharan Africa

Micronutrient Update

Author(s): Mukuria A, Kothari M

Authoring organization(s): Macro International for the US Agency for International Development

Published: 2007

Summary: This Micronutrient Update, which continues where the May 2002 Micronutrient Update left off, presents information on women and children from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2000 and 2005.

Topic(s): Breastfeeding, general nutrition, monitoring and evaluation

Type(s): Journal article

Region: Global

Nutrition Essentials: A Guide for Program Managers

Author(s): Sanghvi T

Authoring organization(s): Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival

Published: 1999

Summary: This is a reference manual for major nutrition interventions to improve maternal and infant and young child nutrition. The document provides background information on the role of nutrition in child survival, priority nutrition interventions, how to strengthen and integrate nutrition in district health services, how to work in the community and suggested community activities, and tools and instruments to support nutrition interventions.

Topic(s): Breastfeeding, complementary feeding, general nutrition, monitoring and evaluation

Type(s): Reference manual

Region: Global

Nutrition Toolkit

Authoring organization(s): The World Bank

Summary: This toolkit includes nine booklets on different nutrition topics, including nutrition project design, basic facts (nuts and bolts in nutrition), economic analysis, growth promotion (child), food supplements, food stamps, monitoring and evaluation, nutrition communications, and school nutrition.

Topic(s): Breastfeeding, complementary feeding, general nutrition, monitoring and evaluation

Type(s): Booklet

Region: Global

Role of Breastfeeding Cessation in Mediating the Relationship between Maternal HIV Disease Stage and Increased Child Mortality among HIV-Exposed Uninfected Children

Author(s): Fox MP, Brooks DR, et al.

Published: 2009

Summary: This study, published in the International Journal of Epidemiology, analyzed the role of breastfeeding cessation and its effect on mortality of HIV-exposed children.

Topic(s): Breastfeeding, HIV and infant feeding

Type(s): Journal article

Region: Global

ZVITAMBO Infant Feeding MaterialsThis resource is endorsed by the Inter-Agency Task Team on Children and HIV and AIDS.

Authoring organization(s): ZVITAMBO, Ministry of Health Zimbabwe

Summary: These posters from ZVITAMBO contain key, consistent messages that are geared towards mothers, health workers, and other family and community members. The posters are supplemented by simple brochures.

Topic(s): Breastfeeding, infant feeding and HIV

Type(s): Brochure, poster

Region: Sub-Saharan Africa

Breastfeeding and Diarrhea

This fact sheet aims to raise awareness about breastfeeding to prevent and treat diarrhea. One in a set of introductory resources, it provides stakeholders and policymakers in the world’s poorest countries with crucial information on a proven intervention in the fight against diarrheal disease.

This publication is part of the series Diarrheal disease fact sheets

Corporate author(s): PATH

Published: January 2008

Region: Global
  Available materials

English

Russian

Some digital files may be saved at low resolutions to conserve file size. Versions with higher quality may be available; see the contact information below to enquire.

See also:

 


A complete and up-to-date list of the following and related resources can be found at
Enhanced Diarrheal Disease Control Resource Center



Facts for life: Breastfeeding (2006)
This document outlines the health benefits derived from breastfeeding practices.
UNICEF


Evidence for the ten steps to successful breastfeeding (1998)
This document outlines the WHO/UNICEF-recommended ten steps to successful breastfeeding and provides rationale for their efficacy, as well as advocacy and education approaches.  - 118 pages
World Health Organization (WHO)
Englishdownloadpdf  934 kb | Españoldownloadpdf 435 kb | Françaisdownloadpdf 640 kb


Persistent diarrhoea and breastfeeding (1997)
This document outlines the protective properties of breast milk, particularly its role in preventing acute diarrhea and reducing persistent diarrheal episodes among infants and young children up to two years of age.- 26 pages
WHO Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development
Englishdownloadpdf 2 mb


Guidelines


Breastfeeding counselling: A trainer's course; Director's guide (1993)
This resource is targeted toward health care workers for developing the clinical and interpersonal skills needed to support optimal breastfeeding practices. Guides for trainers and participants. - 52 pages
WHO
Englishdownloadpdf 609 kb


Research

Interventions for the control of diarrhoeal diseases in young children: Promotion of breastfeeding (1984)
This review analyzed the relative risks of non-breastfed and breastfed infants suffering diarrheal episodes and found that breastfeeding has a protective effect in reducing diarrheal disease incidence. The authors support promotion of breastfeeding through educational outreach to mothers. - 22 pages
Feachem R, Koblinsky M. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 62(2):271–291.
Englishdownloadpdf 860 kb


Interventions for the control of diarrhoeal diseases in young children: Weaning education (1985)
This study evaluated whether education on weaning practices can improve nutritional status among children and therefore reduce diarrheal incidence and severity. - 14 pages
Ashworth A, Feachem R. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 63(6):1115–1127.
Englishdownloadpdf 644 kb


Nutrient adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding for the term infant during the first six months of life (2002)

This document reviews the impact of exclusive breastfeeding in terms of infant growth, immune response, and neurodevelopment. Nutrients provided through breastfeeding are outlined, including zinc. - 57 pages
WHO
Englishdownloadpdf 272 kb

 

Acceptable medical reasons
for use of breast-milk substitutes


Acceptable medical reasons for use of breast-milk substitutes

Authors: WHO
Number of pages: 6
Publication date: 2009

Overview

Almost all mothers can breastfeed successfully -- initiating breastfeeding within the first hour of life, breastfeeding exclusively for the first six months and continuing breastfeeding (along with giving appropriate complementary foods) up to two years of age or beyond. Positive effects of breastfeeding on the health of infants and mothers are observed in all settings.

Nevertheless, a small number of health conditions of the infant or the mother may justify recommending that she does not breastfeed temporarily or permanently. Whenever stopping breastfeeding is considered, the benefits of breastfeeding should be weighed against the risks posed by the presence of the specific conditions listed.

This list of acceptable medical reasons for temporary or long-term use of breast-milk substitutes is made available as an independent tool for health professionals working with mothers and newborn infants, as part of the Baby-friendly Hospitals Initiative.

English [pdf 209kb] | Portuguese [pdf 73kb]  | Spanish [pdf 115kb]


 

Protecting, Promoting and Supporting Continued Breastfeeding from 6–24 + Months: Issues, Politics, Policies & Action Protecting, Promoting and Supporting Continued Breastfeeding from 6–24 + Months: Issues, Politics, Policies & Action 6 pages 403 kb

The Joint Statement on Continued Breastfeeding was produced following the WABA GBPM in October 2008 in response to shared concerns that breastfeeding after 6 months has slipped off the policy and programme agenda. Action and investment in improving complementary feeding or providing foods supplements seems to be taking place with little consideration for supporting or improving breastfeeding amongst 6 < 24+ month old children, despite estimates that 20% of deaths in 12 < 24 month age group in developing countries are due to lack of breastfeeding. The statement calls upon everyone involved in improving the health and development of infants and young children to take steps to ensure that continued breastfeeding 6-24+ months is protected, promoted and supported as the precondition for, and foundation of, appropriate complementary feeding. Steps for action encompassing communication, education and promotion; practical support; breastfeeding as part of complementary feeding; definitions and monitoring; addressing misinformation through marketing and special circumstances are described.

Click here for the statement.

The following publications are from LINKAGES Project. Click here for a complete list of their publications.
 

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24 Pages
 
A Guide for Calculating the Benefits of Breastfeeding (BOB)
The guide offers detailed guidance for users of the “Policy Analysis Tool for Calculating the Health, Child Spacing, and Economic Benefits of Breastfeeding (BOB)” and identifies the main features of the tool’s seven worksheets and the basis for calculations.

Author(s): J. Ross, V. Aguayo, H. Stiefel
 

Downloads Available:
English (313.1 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic A Policy Analysis Tool for Calculating the Health, Child Spacing, and Economic Benefits of Breastfeeding (BOB)
This spreadsheet tool consists of seven worksheets: 1) introduction, 2) assumptions, 3) breastmilk production, 4) health, 5) survival, 6) fertility, and 7) summary. The spreadsheets estimate the effects of breastfeeding on a variety of functional outcomes with public policy significance.

Author(s): J. Ross, V. Aguayo, H. Stiefel
 

Downloads Available:
English (110.5 KB)


 
 
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19 Pages
 
A Spreadsheet Model to Estimate the Effects of Different Infant Feeding Strategies on Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and on Infant Mortality
This model was used to calculate results reported in: Ross JS, Labbok MH. Modeling the effects of different infant feeding strategies on young child survival and mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Am J Pub Health 2004; 94:1175-1181. (This model is in Microsoft Excel.)

Author(s): J. Ross, M. Labbok
 

Downloads Available:
English (467 KB)


 
 
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36 Pages
 
Antenatal, Postnatal and Child Health Book
This book was developed in Zambia to be given to pregnant and breastfeeding mothers at antenatal and child health clinics.

 

Downloads Available:
English (2.34 MB)


 
 
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81 Pages
 
Behavior Change Communication for Improved Infant Feeding - Training Module
Trains trainers in behavior change communication skills, training techniques, and infant feeding. Includes field visits, practice training, and action planning exercises.

 

Downloads Available:
English (1.06 MB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Better Breastfeeding, Healthier Lives
Published by the INFO Report, this report describes how programs and providers can help women improve breastfeeding practices.

 

Downloads Available:
English (706.53 KB)


 
 
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8 Pages
 
Birth, Initiation of Breastfeeding, and the First Seven Days after Birth - Facts for Feeding
Identifies actions health care providers can take during the first week postpartum to help the mother and baby establish and maintain good breastfeeding practices.

 

Downloads Available:
English (96.08 KB)
French (62.84 KB)
Spanish (457.86 KB)
Portuguese (103.16 KB)


 
 
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15 Pages
 
Bolivia - Breastfeeding, Complementary Feeding, Maternal Nutrition and LAM Counseling Cards
These counseling cards were developed in collaboration with many partners for the Altiplanto region of Bolivia.

Contributing Partner(s): Caritas Colivaiana, Plan International Bolivia, USAID, Procosi, Servir, Project Concern, Desarolla Juvenil Comunitario, Freedom from Hunger, Aprosar, Ministerio de Salud y Prevension Social
 

Downloads Available:
Spanish (3.92 MB)


 
 
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6 Pages
 
Breastfeeding and HIV/ AIDS- Frequently Asked Questions
Reviews the latest information on the transmission of HIV via breastfeeding and provides programmatic guidance for field activities.

 

Downloads Available:
English (123.79 KB)
French (129.89 KB)
Spanish (199.03 KB)
Portuguese (130.35 KB)


 
 
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6 Pages
 
Breastfeeding and Maternal Nutrition- Frequently Asked Questions
Focuses on the impact of maternal nutrition on breastmilk quantity and quality, the nutritional requirements of lactating women, the impact of breastfeeding on maternal health, and implications of this information for programs.

 

Downloads Available:
English (121.56 KB)
French (127.66 KB)
Spanish (134.22 KB)
Portuguese (124.68 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Breastfeeding Questions Answered: A Guide for Providers
This publication produced by the INFO Project provides answers to questions frequently asked about breastfeeding.

 

Downloads Available:
English (314.66 KB)


 
 
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8 Pages
 
Breastmilk: A Critical Source of Vitamin A for Infants and Young Children- Facts for Feeding
Recommends national, community, and household level practices to improve vitamin A status of infants, young children, and pregnant and lactating women.

Contributing Partner(s): Helen Keller International, HKI/ Africa, the MOST Project
 

Downloads Available:
English (131.82 KB)
French (60.41 KB)
Spanish (121.69 KB)
Portuguese (105.02 KB)


 
 
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90 Pages
 
Can Marketing Of Multiple Vitamin/Mineral Supplements Reach the Poor? The Vitaldía Project, Bolivia
Documents the qualitative research conducted for the development of a multiple micronutrient supplement (VitalDía) marketed to reach low income women in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. It also presents results from the baseline and final Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices, and Behavior (KAPB) studies conducted to assess the reach of the program among women of reproductive age.

Author(s): S. Huffman
 

Downloads Available:
English (3.17 MB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Care and Feeding of Young Children Discussion Guide
Illustrates ways of promoting growth and learning in young children through everyday interactions between children and their caregivers in rural Guatemala and urban Brazil.

Author(s): P. Engle
 

Downloads Available:
English (32.07 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Celebrating Innocenti 1990-2005: Achievements, challenges and future imperatives
This document was prepared for the 15th anniversary celebration of the Innocenti declaration. It assesses the progress in achieving the Innocenti targets, examines the current challenges and reinforces the need to act rapidly in support of infant and young child feeding.

 

Downloads Available:
English (473.01 KB)


 
 
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30 Pages
 
Community-Based Strategies for Breastfeeding Promotion and Support in Developing Countries
WHO and LINKAGES examine the role of communities and community-based resource persons in providing support to mothers who breastfeed. This report is based on a review of the literature and an analysis of three projects; it assesses the impact of interventions, the mechanisms through which behaviors can be changed, and the factors that are necessary to maximize and sustain the benefits of interventions. (Hard copies of this publication can be obtained by e-mailing WHO at cah@who.int)

Author(s): A. Morrow, WHO
Contributing Partner(s): LINKAGES
 

Downloads Available:
English (455.36 KB)


 
 
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40 Pages
 
Developmental Readiness of Normal Full Term Infants to Progress from Exclusive Breastfeeding to the Introduction of Complementary Foods: Reviews of the Relevant Literature
Summarizes evidence-based literature regarding the best age to introduce complementary (semi-solid and solid) foods into the diet of the breastfed infant.

Author(s): A. Naylor, ed. and A. Morrow, co-ed.
Contributing Partner(s): Wellstart International and the LINKAGES Project
 

Downloads Available:
English (1.91 MB)


 
 
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41 Pages
 
East and Southern African Initiative - Nutrition for PLWHA Counseling Cards
This set of 11x14" counseling cards was designed for counselors and health workers to help them enhance nutrition couseling for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) during individual or group counseling. These include topics related to good nutrition and its importance, preventing infection, physical activity and managing diet.

Contributing Partner(s): RCQHC, FANTA
 

Downloads Available:
English (1.88 MB)


 
 
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70 Pages
 
Essential Health Sector Actions to Improve Maternal Nutrition in Africa
Identifies essential nutrition and health actions for pregnant and lactating women that contribute to the achievement of five nutrition-related outcomes.

Contributing Partner(s): The Regional Centre for Quality of Health Care at Makerere University in Uganda, MOST Project, SARA Project, SANA Project
 

Downloads Available:
English (505.58 KB)


 
 
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8 Pages
 
Essential Health Sector Actions to Improve Maternal Nutrition in Africa (Summary)
Summary of 70 page paper, Essential Health Sector Actions to Improve Maternal Nutrition in Africa.

Contributing Partner(s): The Regional Centre for Quality of Health Care at Makerere University in Uganda, MOST Project, SARA Project, SANA Project
 

Downloads Available:
English (188.43 KB)
French (486.73 KB)


 
 
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57 Pages
 
Essential Nutrition Actions - A Four Day Training Course for Planners & Managers of Health & Nutrition Programs in Indonesia: Training Guide
The purpose of this training is to prepare program managers and pre-service instructors to train service providers in an action-oriented approach to improve the nutrition of infants, young children and women. (THE TRAINING MODULE DOES NOT INCLUDE: Handouts, PowerPoints or Electronic References. To view the training module, click on the link, "English" below; to view the Handouts for this training, click here; to view the PowerPoints, click here; to view the Electronic References, click here)

 

Downloads Available:
English (1.81 MB)


 
 
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12 Pages
 
Ethiopia - Counseling Cards for Fathers
These counseling cards were developed for use with fathers, to encourage their support of breastfeeding and maternal nutrition. They tell fathers what they can do during pregnancy and breastfeeding to support the health of their wives.

Contributing Partner(s): Ethiopian MOH, CARE, CRS, World Vision, REST, SC-USA, Concern, EHNRI
 

Downloads Available:
English (828.07 KB)


 
 
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18 Pages
 
Ethiopia - Counseling Tool on Infant Feeding Options for PMTCT Sites
This counseling tool is to be used by health professionals working in PMTCT sites for the purpose of counseling and demonstrating recommended infant feeding options.

Contributing Partner(s): Ethiopian Ministry of Health
 

Downloads Available:
English (11.24 MB)
Amharic (1.5 MB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
Exclusive Breastfeeding: The Only Water Source Young Infants Need - Frequently Asked Questions
Discusses the nutritional and health consequences of giving infants water during the first six months, and the role of breastfeeding in meeting an infant’s water requirements. Also available in Russian

 

Downloads Available:
English (123.65 KB)
French (123.07 KB)
Spanish (463.37 KB)
Portuguese (129.83 KB)


 
 
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8 Pages
 
Experience LINKAGES: Behavior Change Communication
Describes LINKAGES behavior change communication strategy, including essential infant feeding behaviors, priority audiences, direct messages, and supportive materials and media.

 

Downloads Available:
English (284.63 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
Experience LINKAGES: Cost & Effectiveness
Describes the process LINKAGES' Madagascar program undertook to link the costs of its interventions with the resultant changes in infant feeding behaviors.

 

Downloads Available:
English (111.82 KB)


 
 
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6 Pages
 
Experience LINKAGES: Infant Feeding Assessments for PMTCT Program Design
Describes the rapid assessment process and its application in the LINKAGES Project’s PMTCT program in Zambia.

 

Downloads Available:
English (109.64 KB)


 
 
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6 Pages
 
Experience LINKAGES: Mainstreaming
Describes what mainstreaming means and how mainstreaming lends itself to the replication, scale up, and sustainability of project innovations.

 

Downloads Available:
English (173.13 KB)


 
 
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6 Pages
 
Experience LINKAGES: Policy Dialogue
Describes the conceptual framework for policy change, identifies the main policy issues related to IYCF, discusses LINKAGES strategies to address policy dialogue challenges, and summarizes lessons learned.

 

Downloads Available:
English (142.05 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
Experience LINKAGES: Program Approach
Describes strategies, tools, and materials used by LINKAGES to achieve results.

 

Downloads Available:
English (105.68 KB)


 
 
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6 Pages
 
Experience LINKAGES: Results
Reports on the project’s indicators and tools for measuring change, the results achieved, and lessons learned in collecting infant feeding data.

 

Downloads Available:
English (100.62 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
Experience LINKAGES: Training Tools
Describes LINKAGES training modules, methodologies, and performance monitoring tools.

 

Downloads Available:
English (90.86 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic EXPO LINKAGES
Please click on the Technical Initiatives link above to view slide presentations from EXPO LINKAGES.

 

Downloads Available:
English (1.25 MB)


 
 
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8 Pages
 
Feeding Infants and Young Children During and After Illness
This Facts for Feeding describes optimal feeding behaviors during and after illness, challenges of feeding during these times, special considerations for common illnesses, and guidelines for counseling caregivers.

 

Downloads Available:
English (95.18 KB)


 
 
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8 Pages
 
Feeding Low Birthweight Babies - Facts for Feeding
This most recent publication in the Facts for Feeding series provides guidance on breastmilk feeding options to ensure that low birth weight babies receive the attention needed to survive, grow, and develop.

 

Downloads Available:
English (91.86 KB)


 
 
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58 Pages
 
Formative Research for Infant Feeding Programs: Skills and Practice for Infant and Young Child Feeding and Maternal Nutrition
Trains participants to conduct formative research using effective communication skills in order to collect information to plan and improve programs.

 

Downloads Available:
English (393.29 KB)


 
 
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16 Pages
 
Ghana - Breastfeeding & Infant Feeding Counseling Cards
This set of eight counseling cards was developed to address infant feeding problems found in northern Ghana. For further information on the development of messages and materials in northern Ghana, see this case study (in PDF).

Contributing Partner(s): MOH Ghana, CRS, UNICEF, Ghana Red Cross
 

Downloads Available:
English (6.16 MB)


 
 
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18 Pages
 
Ghana - Breastfeeding & Infant Feeding Counseling Cards for Grandmothers and TBAs
These counseling cards were developed to share breastfeeding and infant feeding messages with grandmothers and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in Ghana.

Contributing Partner(s): Ghana MOH, CRS, UNICEF, Ghana Red Cross
 

Downloads Available:
English (1.16 MB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
Guidelines for Appropriate Complementary Feeding of Breastfed Children 6-24 months of Age
Provides feeding guidelines for children 6 to 24 months of age.

 

Downloads Available:
English (86.04 KB)
French (54.4 KB)
Spanish (450.3 KB)
Portuguese (91.69 KB)


 
 
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36 Pages
 
HIV and Infant Feeding: A Chronology of Research and Policy Advances and Their Implications for Programs
Informs program managers and others about major advances in the study of HIV and infant feeding and the policy responses to these findings.

Author(s): E. Piwoz, E. Preble
Contributing Partner(s): SARA Project
 

Downloads Available:
English (290.31 KB)
French (180.89 KB)


 
 
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47 Pages
 
HIV and Infant Feeding: Knowledge, Gaps and Challenges for the Future
A 2004 PowerPoint presentation on mother-to-child transmission of HIV and timing of HIV transmission; overview of postnatal HIV transmission risk factors; results of efforts to quantify risks of different infant feeding strategies using a simulation model; current and planned field trials of interventions to prevent MTCT through breastfeeding; discussion of future challenges. (To view the notes, first open the Powerpoint, then go to the Edit menu, then choose Edit Slides.)

Author(s): E. Piwoz and J. Ross
Contributing Partner(s): SARA Project
 

Downloads Available:
English (1.18 MB)


 
 
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74 Pages
 
Improving Breastfeeding Behaviors: Evidence from Two Decades of Intervention Research
Summarizes available research on specific interventions intended to improve four key breastfeeding behaviors.

Author(s): C. Green
 

Downloads Available:
English (437.93 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Improving Breastfeeding Practices on a Broad Scale at the Community Level: Success Stories From Africa and Latin America
Large-scale community-level behavior change programs designed to improve breastfeeding practices were implemented in Bolivia, Ghana, and Madagascar. This study describes success stories from these various areas.

 

Downloads Available:
English (125.86 KB)


 
 
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38 Pages
 
India - CARE Breastfeeding Counseling Cards
These counseling cards produced by CARE were used for house visits in India.

Contributing Partner(s): CARE
 

Downloads Available:
English (2.17 MB)


 
 
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35 Pages
 
India - CRS Counseling Cards
This set of 15 13x10" counseling cards was used during community breastfeeding promotion activities in India by CRS.

Contributing Partner(s): CRS
 

Downloads Available:
English (1.48 MB)


 
 
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25 Pages
 
India - CRS Counseling Cards
This set of 11 counseling cards in Hindi was used by CRS during community breastfeeding promotion activities. No English translation is available.

Contributing Partner(s): CRS
 

Downloads Available:
English (2.12 MB)


 
 
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38 Pages
 
India - CRS Flashcards on Breastfeeding and Maternal Nutrition (Hindi)
These 20 flashcards were used to encourage maternal nutrition in the Lucknow Zone, in India. No translation of the Hindi scripts is available.

Contributing Partner(s): CRS
 

Downloads Available:
English (2.16 MB)


 
 
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59 Pages
 
India - CRS Flashcards on Breastfeeding and Maternal Nutrition (Telugu)
These 30 flashcards were used to encourage maternal nutrition in the Hyderabad zone, in India. No English translation of the Telugu is available at this time.

Contributing Partner(s): CRS
 

Downloads Available:
English (6.87 MB)


 
 
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38 Pages
 
India - World Vision Breastfeeding Counseling Cards
These counseling cards were developed in collaboration with World Vision to provide age-specific messages on infant feeding. No English translation is available.

Contributing Partner(s): World Vision
 

Downloads Available:
English (2.39 MB)


 
 
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156 Pages
 
Infant and Young Child Feeding: A Tool for Assessing National Practices, Policies and Programmes
This three-part tool is designed to help users assess the strengths and weaknesses of policies and programs for protecting, promoting and supporting optimal feeding practices, and determine where improvements may be needed to meet the aim and objectives of the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. Requests for permission to reproduce or translate the tool should be addressed to WHO Publications, email: permission@who.int (See our other program tools)

 

Downloads Available:
English (1.46 MB)


 
 
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56 Pages
 
Infant Feeding in Emergencies, Module 1: for emergency relief staff
This infant feeding in emergencies module prepares all emergency relief staff, both international and locally recruited, to safeguard maternal and child health in emergencies by ensuring appropriate infant feeding. It is appropriate for decision-makers, regional managers, logistics officers, camp administrators, and all whose work involves care for mothers and children. LINKAGES contributed to the interagency working group on Infant Feeding in Emergencies and the UN Sub Committee on Nutrition Working Group on Emergencies to prepare this module which can be obtained by visiting the Emergency Nutrition Network website, http://www.ennonline.net/ife/.

Contributing Partner(s): UN Sub Committee on Nutrition Working Group on Emergencies
 

Downloads Available:
No downloads available


 
 
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59 Pages
 
Infant Feeding in Emergencies, Module 2 version 1.0
This module aims to provide health and nutrition workers with the basic knowledge and skills to help both breastfeeding and artificially feeding women. The intended audience is health and nutrition workers who are directly concerned with the care of mothers/caregivers and infants. The module can be obtained by visiting the Emergency Nutrition Network website, http://www.ennonline.net/resources/view.aspx?resid=4.

Contributing Partner(s): ENN, IBFAN, Terre des hommes, UNICEF, UNHCR, WHO, WFP
 

Downloads Available:
No downloads available


 
 
thumbnail graphic Infant Feeding Key Indicator Monitoring Manual
This manual is designed to permit organizations to carry out routine monitoring of key infant feeding behaviors: Exclusive Breastfeeding, Timely Initiation of Breastfeeding, and Timely Complementary Feeding.

 

Downloads Available:
English (808.89 KB)


 
 
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25 Pages
 
Infant Feeding Options in the Context of HIV
This document identifies the specific behaviors required of a mother or caregiver to act upon the infant feeding recommendations and informed choice policy of WHO, UNICEF, UNAIDS, and UNFPA.

 

Downloads Available:
English (447.88 KB)


 
 
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186 Pages
 
Integrated Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and Support for Infant Feeding: Community Motivators Course
The LINKAGES basic course on Integrated Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV and Support for Infant Feeding (for community motivators) is designed to provide community motivators with a basic understanding of HIV facts and prevention, mechanisms of MTCT, current MTCT risk reduction interventions, and infant and young child feeding in the context of PMTCT. The course also reviews nutritional recommendations for pregnant women and new mothers in areas affected by HIV.

 

Downloads Available:
English (1.14 MB)


 
 
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265 Pages
 
Integrated Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and Support for Infant Feeding: Health Providers Course
The LINKAGES basic course on Integrated Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV and Support for Infant Feeding (for health providers) is designed to give clinic-based health personnel and supervisors a basic understanding of HIV facts and prevention, mechanisms of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, current MTCT risk reduction interventions, and infant feeding in the context of HIV. The course also reviews nutritional recommendations for pregnant women and new mothers in areas affected by HIV and AIDS.

 

Downloads Available:
English (2.85 MB)


 
 
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105 Pages
 
Interventions to Improve Breastfeeding Behaviors: Detailed Summaries of 51 Studies
Provides brief summaries of the available research from 51 studies on specific interventions intended to influence four key breastfeeding behaviors.

Author(s): C. Green
 

Downloads Available:
English (356.04 KB)


 
 
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39 Pages
 
Jordan - Breastfeeding & LAM Flipchart
.

Contributing Partner(s): Jordanian Ministry of Health
 

Downloads Available:
Arabic (3.1 MB)


 
 
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107 Pages
 
LAM (Lactational Amenorrhea Method): A Modern Postpartum Contraceptive Method for Women Who Breastfeed- Training Module for Health and Family Planning Service Providers
Provides information and activities to train health care personnel and community health workers to provide LAM within their child health, reproductive health, or family planning services.

 

Downloads Available:
English (533.85 KB)
French (636.36 KB)
Spanish (581.24 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic LAM CD for Program Planners: An interactive multimedia resource on the Lactational Amenorrhea Method
Contains related publications, a policy/advocacy slide presentation, IEC materials, M&E tools, and training modules. Click here to view the CD

 

Downloads Available:
No downloads available


 
 
thumbnail graphic LINKAGES Country Programs: What Worked and How We Did It
This plenary presentation from EXPO LINKAGES highlights activities from the project's various country programs.

 

Downloads Available:
English (3.52 MB)


 
 
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131 Pages
 
LINKAGES Zambia 1997-2005 Final Report
A full report on LINKAGES infant feeding and HIV/AIDS programs in Zambia.

 

Downloads Available:
English (3.03 MB)


 
 
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32 Pages
 
LINKAGES/Ghana Project 1997-2004 Final Report
Final report on LINKAGES' Ghana Country Program.

 

Downloads Available:
English (202.56 KB)


 
 
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6 Pages
 
L’Allaitement Maternel et la Nutrition Maternelle- Fiche De Questions Posées Fréquemment
Cette fiche fait partie d’une série de publications sur des questions posées fréquemment concernant des thèmes dont traite le Projet LINKAGES. Le présent numéro se penche sur l’impact que comporte la nutrition maternelle sur la quantité et la qualité du lait maternel, les besoins nutritionnels de la femme qui allaite, l’impact de l’allaitement maternel sur la santé de la mère et les implications de cette information pour les programmes.

 

Downloads Available:
French (127.66 KB)


 
 
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6 Pages
 
Madagascar - LAM Counseling Cards
These two 9x12" counseling cards were used at community meetings and health clinics to promote LAM as a method of family planning (in English and Malagasy).

Contributing Partner(s): JSI, BASICS, UNICEF, Peace Corps, ADRA, Seecaline
 

Downloads Available:
English (720.17 KB)


 
 
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59 Pages
 
Madagascar Story
This publication documents the major elements of the LINKAGES-AED program in Madagascar. It is useful to planners and programmers interested in improving breastfeeding and other nutritional practices at large scale.

 

Downloads Available:
English (2.3 MB)
French (2.06 MB)


 
 
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63 Pages
 
Manual de Lactancia Materna
This Spanish manual serves as a reference and counseling guide for health care personnel and community health workers promoting breastfeeding and LAM, a postpartum contraceptive method for women who breastfeed.

Contributing Partner(s): Institute for Reproductive Health, La Leche League Honduras, UNICEF, USAID, Wellstart International
 

Downloads Available:
Spanish (2.98 MB)


 
 
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6 Pages
 
Maternal Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation: Dietary Guide
This document attempts to help health workers translate general recommendations for increased nutrient requirements into individual dietary and behavioral changes for mothers. It also attempts to assist programs in the development of appropriate protocols and counseling materials on maternal nutrition.

Contributing Partner(s): CORE Group
 

Downloads Available:
English (1.15 MB)


 
 
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99 Pages
 
Maternal Nutrition: Issues and Interventions (A Computer-based Slide Presentation for Advancing Maternal Nutrition) Presentation Slides with Notes
Offers information to help nutrition advocates influence policy-makers and program planners to address maternal undernutrition. (To view the notes, first open the Powerpoint, then go to the Edit menu, then choose Edit Slides.)

 

Downloads Available:
English (1.17 MB)
French (1.4 MB)
Spanish (1.66 MB)


 
 
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6 Pages
 
Meeting the Iron Requirements of Infants and Young Children
Discusses the causes and consequences of iron deficiencies in infants and young children (less than 2 years old) and recommends actions to prevent and treat it.

 

Downloads Available:
English (74.38 KB)
Portuguese (174.63 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
Mother-to-Mother Support for Breastfeeding- Frequently Asked Questions
Focuses on a support group method where experienced breastfeeding mothers model optimal breastfeeding practices, share information and experiences, and offer support to other women in an atmosphere of trust and respect. (This publication is also available in Russian.)

 

Downloads Available:
English (102.7 KB)
French (128.3 KB)
Spanish (106.96 KB)


 
 
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48 Pages
 
Mother-to-Mother Support Group Methodology and Infant Feeding (Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding): Training of Trainers
Prepares participants to train health care providers or community-based volunteers to organize and facilitate mother-to-mother support groups on infant feeding. To view the Chinese version of this training module, click here. (The Chinese version was translated by Chia-Wen Lee, PhD, Huei-Man Lai, MA, and Shu-Fang Wang, MSc.)

 

Downloads Available:
English (1.36 MB)
Spanish (544.73 KB)


 
 
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8 Pages
 
Nacimiento, iniciación de la lactancia materna y los primeros siete días después del nacimiento- Datos importantes sobre alimentacíon
Aproximadamente entre una cuarta parte y la mitad de las muertes durante el primer año de vida ocurren en la primera semana. Muchas de las intervenciones que mejorarán la salud y la supervivencia de los recién nacidos tienen un costo relativamente bajo y es factible implementarlas. Una de ellas es la lactancia materna inmediata y exclusiva. Esta intervención también puede ayudar a las mujeres al minimizar la hemorragia que tiene lugar inmediatamente después del parto, una de las causas más comunes de mortalidad materna.

 

Downloads Available:
Spanish (451.84 KB)


 
 
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33 Pages
 
Nepal - Maternal Nutrition & Breastfeeding Counseling Cards
These counseling cards were used in Nepal to promote messages on breastfeeding, complementary feeding and maternal nutrition.

 

Downloads Available:
English (1.87 MB)


 
 
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20 Pages
 
Nutrition Job Aids: Regions with High HIV Prevalence
LINKAGES and its partners developed nutrition protocols to remind workers of information to be shared and procedures to be followed at six contact points with mothers: 1) antenatal, 2) immediate postpartum, 3) postpartum and family planning, 4) immunization, 5) growth monitoring/well child, and 6) sick child consultations. This protocol covers such topics as infant and young child feeding, micronutrient supplementation, and maternal nutrition, specifically for regions of high HIV prevalence.

Contributing Partner(s): RCQHC, REDSO/ESA, BASICS, UNICEF, WHO
 

Downloads Available:
English (160.85 KB)


 
 
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15 Pages
 
Nutrition Job Aids: Regions with Low HIV Prevalence
LINKAGES and its partners developed nutrition protocols to remind workers of information to be shared and procedures to be followed at six contact points with mothers: 1) antenatal, 2) immediate postpartum, 3) postpartum and family planning, 4) immunization, 5) growth monitoring/well child, and 6) sick child consultations. This protocol covers such topics as infant and young child feeding, micronutrient supplementation, and maternal nutrition, specifically for regions of low HIV prevalence.

Contributing Partner(s): RCQHC, REDSO/ESA, BASICS, UNICEF, WHO
 

Downloads Available:
English (161.42 KB)


 
 
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43 Pages
 
Packaged Foods for Complementary Feeding: Marketing Challenges and Opportunities
Examines strategies for using packaged complementary foods to improve the nutritional well being of young children in developing countries.

Author(s): R. Porter, L. Shafritz
 

Downloads Available:
English (113.9 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV Communication Guide for Health Workers
This guide, developed in Zambia, provides information that health workers can use to communicate with mothers and community members on PMTCT and infant and young child feeding. It also gives communication tips for promoting and supporting healthy behaviors.

 

Downloads Available:
English (5.54 MB)


 
 
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80 Pages
 
Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Asia: Practical Guidance for Programs
Provides technical information, program guidelines, and a basis for policy dialogue and coordination for preventing MTCT in resource-constrained settings common in Asia.

Author(s): E. Piwoz and E. Preble
Contributing Partner(s): The Academy for Educational Development's Center for Nutrition and Family Health
 

Downloads Available:
English (616.07 KB)


 
 
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60 Pages
 
Promoting the Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM) in Jordan Increases Modern Contraception Use in the Extended Postpartum Period
This report assess the impact of LAM on continued modern method use applying a survey conducted among 3,183 women in 11 child health centers in Jordan

 

Downloads Available:
English (2.39 MB)


 
 
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182 Pages
 
Quantifying the Benefits of Breastfeeding: A Summary of the Evidence
Presents an annotated bibliography of more than 180 studies that provide scientific and epidemiological evidence in support of the World Health Organization’s and UNICEF’s Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. (The printed Spanish version of this publication is not currently available. La versión impreso en español no está disponible ahora.)

Author(s): N. León-Cava, J. Ross, C. Lutter, L. Martin
Contributing Partner(s): Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)
 

Downloads Available:
English (2.03 MB)
Spanish (539.84 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Questionnaire from BOLIVIA Community Assessment of Infant Feeding Practices
LINKAGES and its PROCOSI partners in Bolivia used this survey form to gather information on infant feeding practices among mothers of infants less than 12 months old.

 

Downloads Available:
Spanish (124 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Questionnaires from ETHIOPIA Community Assessment of Essential Nutrition Actions and Other Health Behaviors
LINKAGES and the ESHE Project used these 4 survey forms in Ethiopia for household interviews and interviews with mothers of infants 0–11 months, 12–23 months, and 24–59 months old. The program in Ethiopia was within a broad nutrition and child survival context which is reflected in the surveys.

 

Downloads Available:
English (104 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Questionnaires from GHANA Community Assessment of Breastfeeding Knowledge and Behavior
LINKAGES and its partners in Ghana collected information on infant feeding knowledge and practice among mothers of infants less than 12 months old, fathers, and grandmothers.

 

Downloads Available:
English (116.62 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Questionnaires from MADAGASCAR Community Assessment of Essential Nutrition Actions and Other Health Behaviors
LINKAGES and its partners in Madagascar developed questionnaires for mothers of children 0–5 months, 6–11 months, 12–23 months old. The program in Madagascar was within a broad nutrition and child survival context which is reflected in the surveys.

 

Downloads Available:
English (108.36 KB)
French (108.31 KB)
Malagasy (108.81 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Questionnaires from TANZANIA Integrated PMTCT Community Survey
LINKAGES and its partners in Tanzania developed a questionnaire for mothers of infants less than 12 months old on infant feeding practices, reproductive health, and HIV. A questionnaire for adults in the community focused on HIV knowledge, attitudes, and practices; use of HIV counseling and testing services, and attitudes on mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

 

Downloads Available:
English (102.56 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Questionnaires from ZAMBIA Baseline Prior to PMTCT Media Campaign
LINKAGES and the District Health Management Board in Zambia conducted a baseline survey prior to launching Act Now!, a media campaign. The survey form was used with mothers of infants less than 12 months old and included questions about antenatal care and infant feeding practices and knowledge about mother-to-child transmission of HIV. .

 

Downloads Available:
English (88.35 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Questionnaires from ZAMBIA Integrated Infant Feeding and HIV Counseling Program
As part of the Ndola Demonstration Project, LINKAGES developed clinic and community-based surveys to gather information on infant feeding practices, knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and use of HIV services. Questionnaires were designed for use with pregnant women, mothers of infants 0–5 months and 6–11 months of age, and adults in the community.

 

Downloads Available:
English (273.45 KB)


 
 
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35 Pages
 
Recommended Feeding and Dietary Practices to Improve Infant and Maternal Nutrition
This paper identifies a set of recommended feeding and dietary practices to break cycles of poor health and nutrition that pass from generation to generation. It also provides the scientific evidence to support the recommendations.

 

Downloads Available:
English (259.68 KB)
French (635.18 KB)
Spanish (1.01 MB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
Recommended Practices to Improve Infant Nutrition during the First Six Months- Facts for Feeding
Provides infant feeding guidelines for the first six months of life. Provides guidelines for activities appropriate to local conditions.

 

Downloads Available:
English (76.48 KB)
French (78.34 KB)
Spanish (100.71 KB)
Portuguese (88.06 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Seeing is believing: Mobilizing community support for breastfeeding in Ghana
This article was originally published in nutrition magazine and is included here with permission of NutritionWorks, which retains full copyright. The magazine is available at the nutrition website

 

Downloads Available:
English (4.59 MB)


 
 
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2 Pages
 
Spotlight on LAM Users: Transition to Other Modern Methods of Contraception after Six Months Postpartum
Provides reproductive health and maternal and child health programs with new information (from a 2004 LINKAGES study in Jordan) to advocate for the offering of the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) as a means to increase use of effective birth spacing methods and optimal infant feeding practices.

 

Downloads Available:
English (78.31 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
Spotlight on PMTCT: Reducing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV among Women who Breastfeed
The purpose of this issue of Spotlight is to provide decision makers, program managers, and health workers with guidance on how to support HIV-positive mothers who choose to breastfeed so that they can minimize the risk of transmission and protect their own health and the health of their infant. For many HIV-positive mothers in resource-limited settings, breastfeeding is the only or the safest infant feeding strategy available.

 

Downloads Available:
English (88.22 KB)
French (94.43 KB)
Portuguese (102.5 KB)


 
 
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2 Pages
 
Spotlight on Replacement Feeding: Transition to Replacement Feeding by HIV-Positive Women Who Breastfeed
Many gaps remain in our knowledge of the risks associated with various infant feeding strategies under different conditions. This guidance, based on the best information currently available, is for HIV-positive women who choose to transition from breastfeeding to replacement feeding at about 6 months.

 

Downloads Available:
English (66.83 KB)
French (162.57 KB)
Portuguese (73.92 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Successful Community Nutrition Programming: Lessons from Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda
This report brings together the main findings of a series of assessments of successful community nutrition programming carried out in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda between 1999 and 2000.

 

Downloads Available:
English (1.8 MB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic Successfully Scaling-Up Exclusive Breastfeeding: Lessons from Madagascar
This first CHNRI Research Brief reports on LINKAGES' activities in Madagascar that uses an integrated approach to improve breastfeeding rates.

 

Downloads Available:
English (280.83 KB)


 
 
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50 Pages
 
The Case for Promoting Multiple Vitamin/ Mineral Supplements for Women of Reproductive Age in Developing Countries
Provides guidance on reference standards, the selection of appropriate nutrients and their quantities, and the purchasing of appropriate supplements for pregnant women and women of reproductive age in developing countries.

Author(s): S. Huffman, J. Baker, J. Shumann, E. Zehner
 

Downloads Available:
English (711.77 KB)
French (612.13 KB)
Spanish (967.42 KB)


 
 
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6 Pages
 
The Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM)- Frequently Asked Questions
Focuses on LAM as a modern, temporary family planning method for women who breastfeed, and is addressed to the child survival and family planning health care providers.

 

Downloads Available:
English (234.86 KB)
French (124.19 KB)
Spanish (105 KB)


 
 
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105 Pages
 
Training Methodologies and Principles of Adult Learning: Application for Training in Infant and Young Child Nutrition and Related Topics
The purpose of this training module is to strengthen the capacity of facilitators/trainers to plan, organize, and conduct training of health care workers who implement programs in infant and young child feeding, essential nutrition actions, the lactational amennorhea method, and/or prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

 

Downloads Available:
English (472.81 KB)


 
 
thumbnail graphic USAID's Investment in IYCF: LINKAGES Achievements and Results
The opening plenary presenation of EXPO LINKAGES.

 

Downloads Available:
English (1.89 MB)


 
 
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54 Pages
 
Using the Essential Nutrition Actions to Improve the Nutrition of Women and Children in Ethiopia, including under Situations of Emergencies and HIV and AIDS: Training Guide
This Trainer’s Guide is intended to equip senior health instructors and planners in Ethiopia with the basic theory and technical update to design and implement the Essential Nutrition Actions (ENA) approach, or to train others to do so. (THE TRAINING MODULE DOES NOT INCLUDE: Handouts, PowerPoints or Electronic References. To view the training module, click on the link, "English" below; to view the Handouts for this training, click here; to view the PowerPoints, click here; to view the Electronic References, click here)

 

Downloads Available:
English (418.24 KB)


 
 
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108 Pages
 
Women’s Nutrition throughout the Life Cycle and in the Context of HIV and AIDS
The purpose of this module is to explore issues regarding women’s nutrition: women’s nutritional status, causes of malnutrition, the effects of malnutrition on the intergenerational life cycle, the consequences of inadequate weight and height, micronutrient deficiencies, and interventions to improve women’s nutrition. The module also addresses the synergistic relationship between nutrition and HIV infection, the nutritional requirements of HIV-positive pregnant or lactating women and adolescent girls, and nutritional care and support of HIV-positive women.

 

Downloads Available:
English (535.61 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
World LINKAGES: Africa Regional PMTCT and IYCF Program
Describes LINKAGES' program with national, regional, and international partners that promoted and facilitated PMTCT policies and programs and built capacity to integrate optimal IYCF into existing maternal and child health and community PMTCT services.

 

Downloads Available:
English (109.96 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
World LINKAGES: Bolivia
Describes LINKAGES' infant and young child feeding activities with PROCOSI, a network of local and international health organizations in Bolivia (1998-2003).

 

Downloads Available:
English (147.3 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
World LINKAGES: East and Southern Africa
Describes LINKAGES' regional activities with The Regional Centre for Quality Health Care in Uganda, and the East, Central, and Southern Africa Health Community Secretariat in Tanzania.

 

Downloads Available:
English (110.8 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
World LINKAGES: Ethiopia
Describes LINKAGES' essential nutrition actions program with the Ministry of Health and other local partners in Ethiopia.

 

Downloads Available:
English (122.17 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
World LINKAGES: Ghana
Describes LINKAGES' breastfeeding promotion and protection activities with the Ghana Health Service and other local partners in Ghana (1997-2004).

 

Downloads Available:
English (133.78 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
World LINKAGES: India
Describes LINKAGES' infant feeding and maternal nutrition program initiatives with CARE, Catholic Relief Service, and World Vision in India (April 1997-June 2004).

 

Downloads Available:
English (183.72 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
World LINKAGES: Jordan
Describes LINKAGES' country program activities with the Ministry of Health to integrate LAM into health care facilities in Jordan. (March 1998 - March 2004)

 

Downloads Available:
English (138.02 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
World LINKAGES: Madagascar
Describes LINKAGES' essential nutrition actions program in Madagascar.

 

Downloads Available:
English (120.94 KB)
French (522.48 KB)


 
 
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4 Pages
 
World LINKAGES: Zambia
Describes LINKAGES' infant feeding and HIV programs with central and district health, AIDS, and nutrition agencies in Zambia.

 

Downloads Available:
English (72.08 KB)


 
 




 

 

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updated: 02 August, 2013
 

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